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Rainwater harvesting manual released in Nairobi, Kenya

Nairobi's deputy mayor, Charles Kiyo Muratha, released the publication 'A rainwater harvesting manual for Nairobi' at a meeting held at National Museum of Kenya, on December 7, 2004. A model rainwater harvesting project was also inaugurated at the venue on the same day, followed by a seminar.

Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) has published the manual in collaboration with RELMA (Regional Land Management Unit) in ICRAF (International Centre for Research in Agroforestry), Nairobi. It is a compilation of simple rainwater harvesting techniques suitable for urban areas and also has case studies of successful initiatives from Nairobi, New Delhi and Bombay.

Manual release function at Nairobi
Charles Kiyo Muratha, Deputy Mayor Nairobi (centre), and CSE's Sumita Dasgupta (left) at the release function

Speaking on the occasion, Sumita Dasgupta, Coordinator, Jal Swaraj Campaign, CSE, spoke about the universality of water scarcity in urban areas. She said that although Nairobi gets over 900 mm rainfall over nine month every year; the city faces acute water shortage. Most of the city's water supply sources are over 150 kilometres away. Dasgupta admitted that the situation is no better in most Indian cities. "But we have learnt how to manage the resources and make use of the precious gift - rain," she said. The manual, she added, is a guide to rainwater harvesting practices that can be implemented easily.

Deputy mayor Muratha said: "Water is becoming increasingly scarce in Nairobi. We need to take steps to popularise rainwater harvesting to conserve this precious resource." He said that the government has pledged to create a specific body to support this movement. He exhorted the people of Nairobi to adopt rainwater harvesting to ease the stress on the municipal supply and to ensure year-round availability of safe water.

Bashir Zaman, Deputy Director General, ICRAF, stressed upon the urgency of preserving the catchments for Nairobi's water supply system. He said that the catchments are quite far from the city and are being threatened by rapid erosion, deforestation and pollution. He suggested that a plantation drive be undertaken to reduce soil erosion and increasing the natural infiltration in the catchments.

Addressing the large gathering, comprising engineers, architects, planners, and representatives from NGOs, educational institutions, government officials, researchers, journalists, and interested citizens of Nairobi, Miambo Malesu, Regional Coordinator, RELMA, emphasised the need for long-term collaboration with NGOs like CSE, which have done pioneering work in the field of rainwater harvesting. He urged those present to "water on the seed" by taking active interest in the model rainwater harvesting project at the National Museum of Kenya.

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Model rainwater harvesting project at National Museum of Kenya

A model rainwater harvesting project got underway at the biodiversity block of National Museum of Kenya, Nairobi, on December 7, 2004.

Centre For Science And Environment (CSE) and Regional Land Management Unit (RELMA), Nairobi, have jointly set up the project as part of an effort to spearhead a rainwater harvesting movement in Kenya. Charles Kiyo Muratha, Deputy Mayor of Nairobi, inaugurated the project.
National Museum of Kenya in Nairobi was selected because it:

  • gets a large number of visitors everyday
  • is easily accessible
  • had some of the required infrastructure
Experts from CSE along with National museums of Kenya jointly inspected the site and targeted the Biodiversity block as a model site for the project. Salahuddin Saiphy, a CSE expert on rainwater harvesting, designed the system. It was quite challenging to complete the construction work with a short period. In order to achieve the target John Mbugua, a Nakuru based contractor worked very hard with his team and Saiphy supervised the implementation.

The basic objectives of the model project are:
  • To act as a catalyst in spreading water literacy
  • To reinstate and reaffirm the potential of rainwater harvesting
  • To provide concrete evidence to citizens to indicate potential of rainwater harvesting'
  • To stabilise the imbalance between water supply and its demand
The rainwater harvesting system was designed keeping in view the large section of the society. The system not only collects rainwater for non-potable purposes like cleaning, washing, gardening and use in toilets but also for drinking purposes from KWS Strong room's rooftop covered with galvanised iron sheets. The concept of recharge well was also being introduced for groundwater recharge for the first time in eastern Africa.

The rainwater harvesting system includes:
  • A ferro-cement tank of 20,000 litre capacity - for non potable purpose
  • A recharge well - for groundwater recharge
  • A PVC tank of 3500 litre capacity - for drinking purpose
Manual release function at Nairobi
CSE's Salahuddin Saiphy explaining the working of a rainwater system

Construction work at the site also attracted a lot of visitors to the museum and got briefing from the CSE expert about the project and its objective. The ferro-cement tank was selected for storage because of its low cost and simple technology. A ferro-cement tank can be easily constructed by a mason and later maintained by the community. The tank is located on the eastern corner of the building. The site selection for the tank was done very carefully so that the gravity head can be used to supply water to the toilets located downstream. The overflow from the tank and rooftop water from a small portion of the building is recharged into the ground with the help of a recharge well located next to the tank. The recharge well is 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 2 m and provided with a recharge bore 100 mm diameter and 10 m depth. A PVC tank is also used to collect rainwater from the rooftop having galvanised iron (GI) sheet, as rainwater collected from the sheets is considered fit for drinking. A Nairobi-based PVC tank manufacturer, Kantainers, donated the tank. Its objective was to create a model for small household, which can store rainwater in tanks and use it during the dry spell for drinking and cooking requirements.

The site was visited by a number of people including deputy mayor, deputy DG, ICRAF, Principal, University of Nairobi, representatives from various NGO, engineers, students and individuals. Explaining the working of the system, Saiphy said that the storage in ferro-cement tank is very cost effective and involves very simple technology that can be implemented by a mason. "We have used locally available material and manpower," said Saiphy. It was highly appreciated by visitors and recharge well was of much interest for them as it was a new technique introduced for the first time in Nairobi

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Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting

A seminar on rainwater harvesting was also organised as part of the event comprising the release of a manual and the inauguration of a model rainwater harvesting project in the National Museum of Kenya, Nairobi.

A large largely number engineers, university students, and interested individuals attended it. Orodi Odhiambo, lecturer, Department of Environment and Biosystems Engineering, University of Nairobi, spoke on potential of rainwater harvesting in Nairobi. He said that if done on large scale, it can solve the water problems of the city. William Wambugu, manager, Botanical gardens, National Museums of Kenya also shared his experiences.

Salahuddin Saiphy, a rainwater harvesting expert from CSE, made an audio-visual presentation during the seminar. He said that the purpose of rainwater harvesting is not merely to store rainwater for direct use, but also to recharge groundwater.

Ground water recharge is an effective tool to arrest the sharply declining water table in the area. He also shared the experiences of rigorous monitoring of CSE"s rainwater harvesting projects in Delhi and confirmed that most of the projects have experienced a remarkable rise in water table after rainwater harvesting or check the sharply declining water levels. He elaborated the concept and principles of rainwater harvesting focusing both on storage as well as groundwater recharge. He also unveiled the success stories from Mumbai and Delhi highlighting the issues related to implementation, maintenance and monitoring.

The seminar ended with a lively discussion. The number and variety of the questions posed by the participants revealed their interest and curiosity. Majority of the queries were related to the water quality, campaign and CSE's impact on policy makers. There were few questions regarding groundwater recharge technique also as it was a new concept and being introduced for the first time in Nairobi. Salahuddin Saiphy and Sumita Dasgupta jointly answered the questions.

Manual release function at Nairobi
Salahuddin Saiphy making an audio visual presentation during the seminar

Lecture on Rainwater Harvesting- Experiences from India at University of Nairobi

On the invitation from University of Nairobi, on December 8th 2004, Salahuddin Saiphy from Centre for Science and Environment delivered a lecture at University of Nairobi. The lecture was focused on principles and techniques of rainwater harvesting with case studies from India.

The university officials present in the seminar during the Rainwater Harvesting Manual release function at National Museums of Kenya were so influenced by CSE staff's presentation that the representatives of the Department of Environment and Biosystems Engineering met him personally and invited to deliver a lecture for its faculties and students. Salahuddin Saiphy of JalSwaraj Camapign, CSE spoke at a length about the concept, principles and different techniques of rainwater harvesting. He nicely used the model rainwater harvesting projects in Delhi to detail the different techniques of RWH. He also unveiled the results of CSE monitoring in model projects to confirm the potential of rainwater harvesting. He also screened the 90 seconds public service advertisement on rainwater harvesting produced by CSE to sensitise the participants. Cheering faces of the participants validated that they really enjoyed it. Many of the participants requested for a copy of the presentation and film and looking at the interest a copy was given so that it can be used for imparting knowledge to the peoples who could not attend the workshop.

Poster exhibition on techniques of Rainwater Harvesting at Nairobi

Manual release function at Nairobi
Poster exhibition on techniques of Rainwater Harvesting at Nairobi

On the occasion of launch of Rainwater Harvesting Manual for Nairobi and model project site inauguration at National museums of Kenya, CSE put its poster exhibition on water. The exhibition was a collage of nice posters depicting traditional rainwater harvesting practices, principle and concept of RWH. The exhibition also covered the CSE's model RWH projects and results of monitoring. Maiambo Malesu, Regiaonal Coordinator RELMA appreciated CSE's poster exhibition and said" it is a very rich and colourful exhibition which not only attracts visitors but also clearly teaches RWH. A group of Nairobi University students also requested for the copy of all the posters to be used in their environment festival.

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Large turnout at workshop on wastewater management

A two-day workshop on Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS) held in New Delhi on November 5 and 6, 2004 drew an enthusiastic response from various quarters.

A large number of architects, engineers, representatives of local NGOs, officials from government agencies like INTCAH, CGWB, DJB, HUDCO, DDA and institutions like SPA, IIT Delhi as well as industries were among the participants.

The event, which was held at Indian Habitat Centre, New Delhi, was jointly organised by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) and Pondicherry-based NGO, Auroville Centre for Scientific Research (CSR). The workshop was sponsored by European Union, Borda - Dewats Indian projects.

In his keynote address, Sunita Narain, director, CSE, highlighted the need for decentralised wastewater management instead of centralised treatment systems. She highlighted how Delhi, in spite of having maximum number of treatment plants, could not clean up the Yamuna. The CSE director also released a film on DEWATS produced by CSR. The film explains how the DEWATS system works with the help of animations and case studies.

After the inauguration function, Pedro Kraemer, coordinator, FEDINA - BORDA spoke about their campaigns to spread the concept of decentralised wastewater management systems. Kraemer said that out of 2,902 big and small cities in India, 93 per cent of do not have sewage treatment plants. And the plants in the few cities that have them are not up to the mark.

In the technical session, Tency Beatens from CSR shared his experience on wastewater management in Auroville. He said that a lot of effort had gone in making the plants effective so that they can fit in the urban scenario.

A technical presentation on Total Water Management then followed. Lata Raman from Inspiration, a Kerala-based NGO, conducted the session. Raman explained how they had incorporated rainwater harvesting and wastewater management using DEWATS through case studies from Kerala and Maharashtra.

Thereafter, Durga Venkateswami and Kiran Vaghela from Hunna Shaala, a Gujarat-based NGO, gave a joint presentation. They explained how DEWATS can be used for treating wastewater at community level through proper planning.

The highlight of the first day's presentation was Dr Lucas Dengal's speech, in which he spoke about a different technology, Effective Microorganisms. He explained how the microorganisms derived from molasses could be utilised for treating wastewater.

The second day of the workshop began with a presentation by Pedro Kraemer, in his presentation he explained in detail to the architects and engineer how to design a decentralised wastewater treatment system. He explained about various designing parameters, components and its implementation methodology and monitoring aspects.

After this presentation, the participants were divided into groups. The groups were given basic inputs about CSE's new building and were asked to come up with a wastewater treatment plant design. This was a challenging job for the participants since the space available to install the system was very limited. But the groups presented their ideas and designs, which clearly showed that they had got the basics right.


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Free training programme on
Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS)
for architects, engineers and professionals

A two-day training programme on decentralised wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) is being organised in Delhi by the Auroville Centre for Scientific Research, Borda, India Project and Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi.

Programme schedule

November 5-6, 2004, from 9:30 am to
5 pm
Venue: Core 6-A, 4th Floor India Habitat Center, New Delhi - 110003
Contact: Mr R. K. Srinivasan
Centre for Science and Environment (CSE)
41, Tughlakabad Institutional Area
New Delhi - 110062
el: +91 (011) 29955124; 29956110, 29956394, 29956399 (Ext. 219)
Fax: +91 (011) 29955879

The programme aims to promote awareness and encourage wider implementation of the technology, and will be held from November 5-6, 2004 at India Habitat Centre, New Delhi.

Decentralised wastewater treatment technology has caught up in the Western world as a viable and cost-effective technique. India too is looking at this technology to combat the growing menace of water pollution.

Today, several national and international agencies are promoting decentralised wastewater treatment technology, due to its advantages over the conventional centralised sewage collection and treatment systems. The advantages include lower cost of sewage collection and maintenance of sewerage systems, cost-effective treatment technology, easy management of the wastewater due to its lesser volume, utilisation of recycled sewage, involvement of developers, builders and users in wastewater treatment and management.

DEWATS are able to treat domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater with similar characteristics as domestic sewage up to 1000 cubic metres per day.
On the first day, participants will be introduced to DEWATS technologies. On the second day, they will be expose to the designing aspects of DEWATS. The concepts will be explained with the help of numerous examples.

The training programme is meant for architects, engineers and practising professionals who are interested in the implementation of decentralised wastewater treatment systems.

The training is entirely free. But only those participants who have attended the first day will be allowed to attend the second day of the programme.

Those interested can apply before October 31, 2004.

Organised by
Auroville Centre for Scientific Research (CSR)
Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi
Sulabh International Institute of Technical Research and Training

Sponsored by
Borda—Dewats India Project, Bangalore, Karnataka
Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA), Germany
European Union (EU)
Council of Architects, New Delhi

More about the sponsors

Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA), Germany
Borda's areas of work comprise measures in international development cooperation, in integrated environmental protection and the promotion of environmentally compatible technologies. BORDA cooperates with scientific and development organizations and individuals at home and abroad.

The DEWATS India Project is a private cooperation between German and Indian NGO's financially supported by the European Union (EU) and the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (BMZ).

The aim of the project is to support small- and medium-sized enterprises, institutions and communities in planning, designing and constructing effective, reliable, cost-efficient and custom-made wastewater treatment systems.

Auroville Centre for Scientific Research (CSR)
CSR has focused since 1984 on applied research in the area of renewable energies, appropriate building technologies and water and sanitation.

The effort of treating wastewater through decentralised natural methods is part of an integral program to ensure a sustainable water management policy for Auroville. During a 20-year period, pilot systems were built, practical experience was gathered and the operating skills for handling Dewats plants were fine-tuned.

At present, Auroville operates more than 50 Dewats plants for recycling both 'grey' and 'black' domestic wastewater.

Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi
The Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) is a public interest research and advocacy organisation, which promotes environmentally sound and equitable development strategies.

As a part of its natural resources management programmes, CSE has been promoting rainwater harvesting as a practical solution for meeting water scarcity and recharging the fast depleting groundwater table. With its campaign—People's management of water, that aims to make water everybody's business, CSE is striving to revive community-based rainwater harvesting systems.. Awareness generation, capacity building, networking, technical services and policy research are the integral part of CSE’s campaign on water.

Council of Architecture (COA)
COA regulates both the education and practice of architecture within India. It aims at maintaining world standards of this profession through legal, professional and educational means. As part of its mission, COA also provides practicing professionals and teachers in the field with regular publications, seminars and workshops.

Sulabh International Institute of Technical Research and Training, New Delhi
Sulabh is engaged in the development of new and sustainable technologies. It is active in disseminating information, providing demonstrations, training and consultancy in the field of decentralised wastewater treatment systems, solid waste management, and low cost sanitation.


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CII workshop on rainwater harvesting in Dehradun

A workshop on Urban Rainwater Harvesting: Techniques and Case Studies held in Dehradun on October 8, 2004 drew an enthusiastic response from industries, NGOs, schools, local administration and senior citizens of the city.

The event, which was held at Hotel Madhuban, was organised by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) northern region, Uttaranchal state unit. Officials from Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) gave presentations on various aspects of rainwater harvesting at the workshop.

(From left) CII's D N Mazumdar and Hemant K Arora (Vice-Chairman, CII,
Uttaranchal) watch as CSE's Salahuddin Saiphy makes a presentation
In his keynote address, Hemant K Arora, Vice-Chairman, CII Uttranchal State Council, said that India has 16 per cent of the world's population but only four per cent of water. The percentage of the urban dwellers has trebled over the past 50 years. He added that President APJ Abdul Kalam has asked all state governments to give priority to rainwater harvesting.

Jal Yodha, a film produced by CSE was also screened on the occasion. The film introduces viewers to the technique and management practices governing community water management.

CSE's Salahuddin Saiphy detailed the growing desperation over water in major cities of India. He attributed the water crisis in India despite good monsoons to improper management of water resources.

Saiphy said that the water supply problems caused by Dehradun's altitude and topography could be mitigated to some extent by adopting rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH).
Exhibition on rainwater harvesting techniques

He later outlined the major components of RWH system and said that storing the rainwater in storage tanks for direct use is a good practice that can be adopted in Dehradun, keeping in view the rainfall pattern and hydro-geological conditions.

The meeting ended up with a lively discussion. The participants unanimously agreed that it is time to practise water conservation techniques like RWH. The participants also requested CSE officials to visit them and suggest an RWH scheme. The participants also enjoyed the exhibition of posters on urban RWH put up at the venue.


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Training programme on water management for NTPC engineers
On September 1-2, 2004, a two day training programme on RWH was organized for thirty civil engineers from National Thermal Power Corporate (NTPC), a leading Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) of the Government of India.

CSE and NTPC were jointly organizing similar programs for the last three years.
The training curriculum included traditional and contemporary water harvesting techniques in both urban and rural areas. A visit was to the recently launched Raincentre (RC) in Meerut was also organized. Anil Rana, President, Janhit foundation, the host of RC, explained the water harvesting system at the centre. He also shared his experiences on water management in Uttar Pradesh in general and Meerut in particular.

For more details:

RK Srinivasan, CSE
Ashis K Chatterjee, NTPC

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Paryavaran Sammelan vows to protect waterbodies in Baghpat
On August 29, 2004, Jeevan Surabhi Sewa Sansthan and Prakriti Bachao Andolan, Baghpat based NGOs jointly organized a Payavaran Sammelan (meeting on environment) was organised in Khekda in Baghpat district of Uttar Pradesh. The meeting was attended by Sarpanchs from different villages, local leaders, senior citizens and students. The objective was to sensitize the villagers.

Baghpat, once dotted with numerous waterbodies is heading towards a water crisis. The district has already been declared a dark zone and the waterbodies are being heavily encroached. During his speech, Omveer Tomar, Director, Jeevan Surabhi Sewa Sansthan appealed the citizens to maintain and protect the water bodies and free them from encroachments. He also urged the local administration and judiciary to be more proactive when it comes to protecting the waterbodies.

Chaudhary Noor Hasan, Sarpanch of Ratol a village in Baghpat, during his speech recollected that the area used to be one of the largest exporters of Ratol, a special variety of mangoes. Absence of desired soil moisture has resulted in the poor yield of mangoes, which has resulted in the decline in the mango orchards. Besides this, irrigation mostly from groundwater has become costlier due to steep decline in water levels. He also insisted on the tree plantation as the number of tree is sharply declining in the area.

The CSE staffer, highlighted the ironical situation that the country faces-droughts and floods. He called upon the audience to manage water resources efficiently. He also outlined the importance of traditional water harvesting practices in water management. The importance of conserving existing water bodies and other groundwater resources were also highlighted. He opined that rainwater harvesting is a simple yet effective technique to replenish our water resources.

The meeting ended with a resolution to "conserve the existing water bodies, construct new waterbodies in wastelands and increase the vegetation in the area" so as to preserve the natural resources.

For more details:

Omveer Tomar
Jeevan Surabhi Sewa Sansthan
Teacher Colony
Nehru Road
Baghpat, Uttar Pradesh

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CSE addresses students and citizens in Meerut
On August 19, 2004, Uttar Pradesh Housing and Development Board (UPHADB) organised an awareness programme on rainwater harvesting in Meerut. Around 120 students and large number of architects, engineers and senior citizens attended the seminar.

The main objective of the programme was to involve school children to spread the message of RWH harvesting to a larger section of the society. Hari Gopal, superintending engineer, UPHADB expressed his concern over alarmingly depleting water levels in the city and appealed the citizens to conserve water at all fronts.

CSE staffer started his audiovisual presentation by screening a film on rainwater harvesting. He indicated that mismanagement of water resources has resulted in series of disasters like droughts and floods in India. He also shared some of the facts and figures of Meerut's water resources. Later he spoke about the principles and components of rainwater harvesting. He also elaborated the methods and techniques - how to implement RWH in a building.

H M Raut, Principal, Deewan Public school summerised the programme and appealed the students to take the message to their homes and actively involved into the campaign.

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Seminar for industries of Gurgaon
On 16th August 2004, a workshop was organised for the managerial level representatives of the industries of Gurgaon, at Unitech Country Club, Gurgaon. The workshop was organised by Eco Profit, a Gurgaon Based NGO. The objective of the workshop was to train the companies in the field of integrated environmental production & service policy at all level to minimize the environmental impact and ensure continuous sustainable development.

CSE staffer during his audio visual presentation Interacting with the participants

During the event CSE staffer made a presentation on the rainwater harvesting (RWH) techniques. In his presentation he spoke about the deteriorating quantity and quality of water resources in urban environment due to uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization and increasing gap in demand and supply of water in Gurgaon. Later he explained the concepts and principles of RWH and insisted on the dare need of industries adopting it in view of sharply declining water levels in area. He cited the examples of RWH system of Hero Honda and Tex Corp limited that how industries can ensure adequate water availability by implementing RWH system. He also shared the experiences of monitoring the CSE's model rainwater harvesting of Delhi, Gurgaon and Noida.

Efficient water flow management, Life cycle thinking, Eco design, Audit and efficient audit tools were some other topics covered during the workshop over two days.

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Plumbers and masons training in Delhi
CSE trained plumbers, masons and small contractors on Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) techniques at its Tughlakabad office on 18th august 2004. The objective of the training was to impart the training to the real implementers of RWH structures and to generate the resource base in the city.

Full day training programme was divided into two sessions- theoretical and practical.. During the theoretical session Sumita Dasgupta, Coordinator Jal Swaraj spoke about CSE's campaign. CSE staffer outlined the griming water scarcity in most of Indian citied because of negligence of traditional water harvesting practices and uncontrolled use of water resources. They were not only taught the concept, principles of RWH but also how to design the structures. Some tips for economical and good quality construction were also shared with them.

During the second session- practical session, the participants were asked to plan a rainwater harvesting scheme for a given site plan. All participants made a scheme of RWH. Some of the participants presented their designs and actively participated in the discussion. "Jal Yodha" 22 minutes long film on water was also screened at the occasion.

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Kolkata gets tips on rainwater harvesting
A seminar on rainwater harvesting was organised in Kolkata, West Bengal,
on August 10, 2004. Experts from Centre for Science and Environment (CSE)
were invited to speak on the potential of harvesting rain to address the water crisis in the city.

R Bandyopadhyaya, principal secretary, Water Investigation and Development, of the West Bengal government inaugurated the event, organised by Tata Pipes. Architects, builders, representatives of NGOs and government officials were among those who attended the event.

In his inaugural address, Bandyopadhyaya said that a study conducted by his department concluded that the conical depression developed due to fall in water level in late 1950s has spread over most of the city, especially South Kolkata. “If the situation prevails, it may lead to seawater intrusion,” he said.

R.K. Srinivasan, deputy coordinator, Natural Resource Management Unit, CSE, explained the basic concepts of rainwater harvesting and then gave a detailed presentation on the water scenario in Kolkata. He also shared the results of impact monitoring studies conducted at CSE’s rainwater harvesting model projects in New Delhi.

D. Prakash, regional director of Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) spoke
about the CGWB-funded pilot rainwater harvesting project at Patoli. In the interaction session that followed, the participants asked a lot of questions regarding various technical and policy aspects of rainwater harvesting.

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Awareness programme on rainwater harvesting in Agra
On August 6, 2004, the Agra division of the Uttar Pradesh State Pollution Control Board organised an awareness programme on rainwater harvesting, and CSE was invited to provide an insight on the potential of this system, especially in the context of the city. The programme, which targetted school children, teachers and municipal officials, was inaugurated by the District
Magistrate, Mahesh Kumar Gupta.

The session held in two phases and attended by about three hundred people—was extremely interactive. Sumita Dasgupta, Coordinator, Natural Resource Management Unit, CSE, explained the basic concept of RWH and then presented in details the water scenario in Agra city. She explained the relevance of the technology vis-à-vis Agra and concluded with suggestions on how this initiative on spreading water literacy among the citizens can be carried forward.

The students came up with a volley of questions and expressed great interest in understanding the role they can play in conserving and management of water.
In his speech, the DM mentioned that in Agra ground water level has depleted by 8m in the last few decades. Hence creating awareness among public about rainwater harvesting is the need of the hour.

He also announced that his administration plans to provide small grants to institutions who implement rainwater harvesting in their premises.

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Training Workshop for Engineers
CSE organised a full day training programme for civil engineers on rainwater harvesting on August 4, 2004 at its Tughlakabad office. The engineers were attached with Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited and working in different parts of the country like Ahmedabad, Bangalore Chennai, Guwahati, Ernakulam, Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai. The programme was conducted in collaboration Advanced Level Telecom Training Centre (ALTTC), Ghaziabad.

The training programme was divided into two sessions- theoretical and practical. Audio visual presentation started with screening the 90 seconds public service advertisement on rainwater harvesting and was deeply appreciated by the audiences.

During the theoretical session that started with Jalswaraj Campaign, urgency of water management and scope of rainwater harvesting in griming water situation in the country left participants in a shock. Laws and legislations in different cities like Delhi, Chennai, Indore, Kanpur, Mumbai and Bangalore were discussed. Engineers were not only given the introduction of basics and principals of rainwater harvesting but also exposed to planning and designing aspects of rainwater harvesting structures in detail. Experiences from the CSE's Model rainwater harvesting projects were also shared with participants.

During the second session- practical session participants were shown the rainwater harvesting system of CSE's building and later Jamia Hamdard University. There not only they saw different RWH structure but also interacted with the host of the project, Mr Ahmad Ali, Executive Engineer, Jamia Hamdard University.

While coming back to the class rooms they were asked to design RWH system in a given site plan. All of them calculated total annual RWH potential of the site and designed the scheme. Few participants also made presentation of their designs.

The programme ended up with the feedback session and Rustam Vania, Co-ordinator, Environment Education Unit distributed certificates to all participants.

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Training Programme for plumbers in Kanpur
Plumbers, masons and contractors were trained by CSE staffers in Hotel Bliss, Kanpur on August 3, 2004. The objective of the program was to equip the plumber with the technology of rainwater harvesting and prepare them for implementation. It was a day long training programme, divided into two sessions- theoretical and practical session. About 35 plumbers, masons attended the program.

During the theoretical session, Salahuddin Saiphy and R K Srinivasan from Jal Swaraj Campaign, CSE briefed about the griming situation of water in major Indian cities including Kanpur. In Kanpur, deteriorating water quality and declining water table is the major concern as far as the water is concerned. The basics and principals of rainwater harvesting were elaborated to the participants in detail. Planning and designing aspects were also introduced to them.

During the practical session, the participants were taken to the terrace of the hotel where they measured the dimensions of the building and demarcated the location of rainwater pipes on the site plan. Later they themselves calculated the annual water harvesting potential of the site and designed the rainwater harvesting scheme. Group leaders also presented their designs and thorough discussion among the participants and trainers resulted in a cost effective and suitable structure.

"Boond- Boond Se Ghat Bhare", a film on traditional water harvesting practices and 90 seconds public service advertisement on rainwater harvesting were also screened during the event and were deeply appreciated by the audiences.

List of plumbers, trained during CSE's Training Programme on Rainwater harvesting at Hotel Bliss, Kanpur, July 3, 2004

S. No.  Name Address  Phone no.
1. Debendra Singh 132/38, Baradavi  Chowraha, Kanpur 2641073
2. Amar 7/116, Saroop Nagar, Kanpur 9839100649
3. Ganesh Chander das 7/116, Saroop Nagar, Kanpur 3210577
4. Dwarika  Das 84/224, Karwal Nagar, Kanpur 9415133731
5. Sripal Gupta 336/ML, HARAH Kanpur  
6. Raj kumar singh 83/8, Govind  Nagar, Kanpur 2652823
7. Hari Nagar 104/264, C.P. Road, Kanpur 9839533131
8. Nand Kishore 75/32, Halsi Road, Kanpur -
9. Ramji 141/A, PateL Nagar, Kanpur  
10. Akhoy 60/116, Swarup Nagar, Kanpur 231260
11. Kamlesh kumar 127/284, W-I, Swaket Nagar, Kanpur 2608449
12. M.D.  Rafiq 105/257, Prem Nagar, Kanpur 2553699
13. Om Prakash 50 K 2, BARAH, Kanpur 2681520
14. Ashok Kumar 141/A, Patel Nagar, Kanpur -2400871
15. Ramu 78/4, Anwar ganj, Kanpur  
16. Amarnath 9/A/B, BARAH, Kanpur 2681520
17. Sripath Rawatpur, Kanpur 2291694
18. Yogendra Govindnagar, Kanpur 3813947
19. Ram  Prasad 97/1, Kidwai Nagar, Kanpur  
20. Bijay Kumar  Srinagar, Suklagang, Kanpur  
21. Santosh kumar A Block 669, Kanpur  
22. Mnoj Kumar BARAH, Kanpur  
23. Amrit Lal  12/480, Makra Kanpur  
24. Surendra Gupta  MANGLABIHARIST  
25. Mohmad Idrish 116/936 Rawatpur 2501096
26. Shakil  Machalia, Kanpur  
27. MD Islam Rawatpur, Kanpur  
28. Bahadur 85/65 HALVA, Kanpur  
29. Bablu 85/65 ,  HALVA, Kanpur  
30. M. D. Arif 116/936 Roshan Nagar, Kanpur  
31. Sharma ji Ranapratapnagar, Kanpur  
32. Dashrath Singh 30, Usman pur  Colony, Kanpur  
33. Rashey shyam 209, Ambedkar nagar, Kanpur  
34. Prithvi pal mourya 107/2 Jareeb Chowk Chauraha, Kanpur 3093954
35 Barkatullah Siddiqui 21/1 Ompurwa, Kanpur 9839116839240384

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Training Programme for plumbers in Ghaziabad
On August 2, 2004 a training program for plumbers and masons was organised in Shipra Hotel, Ghaziabad. The objective of the program was to impart training on the basics and design aspects of rainwater harvesting and to generate the resource base in implementation sector. The day long training programme was divided into two sessions- theoretical session and practical session. About 54 participants attended the program which includes plumbers, masons, tube well drillers and small contractors.

During the theoretical session, Salahuddin Saiphy from Jal Swaraj Campaign, CSE outlined the national water scenario focusing on major Indian cities. The widening demand and supply gap in almost every city and increasing dependence on groundwater resources was elaborated in detail. R K Srinivasan, Dy. Coordinator Natural Resource management Unit, CSE not only taught basics and principals of rainwater harvesting but also shared experiences from the model rainwater harvesting projects.

How to plan and design rainwater harvesting structures in a building were elaborated in detail by Salahuddin Saiphy. Specifications for making the structures and the precautions to be taken during the implementation were also discussed in detail.

During the second session- practical session, the participants were taken to the terrace of the hotel. The participants measured the dimensions of the building and demarcated the location of rainwater pipes and bore well on the site plan. All participants calculated the annual water harvesting potential of the site and designed the rainwater harvesting scheme. Some of the plumbers also presented their designs and a very interactive session took place when many plumbers gave their inputs and suggestions for improving the structures.

Responding to a question put by a plumber, it was suggested that any kind of contaminated water should not be used for ground water recharge because that may lead to groundwater pollution in long term. "Jal Yodha", a film on traditional water harvesting practices in different parts of India was also shown during the event.

List of plumbers, trained during CSE's Training Programme on Rainwater harvesting at Shipra Hotel, Ghaziabad, on July 1, 2004

S. No. Name  Address Telephone no.


Lokesh Kumar 521/1 Kiratan Wali Gali, G. T. Ghaziabad 0120- 3095103


Kadhim Khan  Nav  Durgey Sanitation Store, Ramte Ram Road, Ghaziabad 9811071305


Chandra Pad  Nav  Durgey Sanitation  Store , Ramte Ram Road, Ghaziabad 9868481775


Satya Prakash Anujyoti Supply, Kirtan Wali Gali, Ghaziabad 0120- 3099284


Abdul hamid 521/1 Kiratan Wali Gali, G. T. Ghaziabad 9818106744


Rakesh 521/1 Kiratan Wali Gali, G. T. Ghaziabad 9818751448


Emamuddin 510  Kiratan Wali Gali, G. T. Ghaziabad -


Nasim Ekta Vihar, ramte  Ram Road, Ghaziabad 9818661032


 Rajat Tyagi G III Shastri Nagar Kuti Village,  Meerut 0121- 3105308


Pratapsingh 12, Ramanuj Dayal Market,Ramte  ram  Road, Ghaziabad 2724210


Om Prakash Sharma Shop No. 12 Ramanuj  Dayal Market.Ramte  Ram  Road




Sanjeev 521/1 Kiratan Wali Gali, G. T. Ghaziabad 9811857097


 Yashpal Singh 521/1 Kiratan Wali Gali, G. T. Ghaziabad 9811857097


 Raghuveer Singh 517, MadhuPura, Ghaziabad 2744775


Moharr Singh House No. 263, Gali no.1, New  Daulat pur, Ghaziabad 9810649336


Lokendra 508, Kiratan Wali Gali, G. T. Ghaziabad 2733455


Harish singh House No. 276, Sewa nagar, Meerut  Road, Ghaziabad 0120- 31098364


Om Prakash  Garg sanitary Store, Mathura Chowk Ghaziabad.



Vinod Ramte Ram Road, Arjun Nagar, Ghaziabad 2716810


Hari Om  Village & Post  Duhai, Ghaziabad 2679119


Papu Singh  Ramte Ram road, Ghaziabad 2711702


Amit  Chaudhary Ekta vihar Ramte Ram road, Ghaziabad 2746648


Ram Pal Jaiti Tube India, Ramte  Ram Road, Ghaziabad 2714404


Kishan Kishan Gao, Samadhipur  Dadri,



Sher singh  VIjay Nagar Sector 9,Ghaziabad



Kartar Singh  VIjay Nagar Sector 9,Ghaziabad



Shiv Kumar  Gopal  Sanitary Emporium, 510 , GT Road,  Near Kotwali




Vinod  House No. 1125, Old Vijay Nagar, Ghaziabad 9818283198


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Awareness programme on Rainwater Harvesting
On July 14, 2004, an awareness programme on rainwater harvesting was organised for PVC pipe manufacturers of North India at International Trade Centre, New Delhi.

On this occasion CSE staffers made a presentation on rainwater harvesting. The presentation started with screening the 90 seconds Public Service Advertisement on rainwater harvesting, which was highly appreciated by the audiences and helped a lot to motivate them. The focus of the presentation was "scope of rainwater harvesting and its different techniques". Participants were briefed about the concepts and principles, of rainwater harvesting. Results of the rigorous monitoring in CSE's model rainwater harvesting projects were also shared with the participants.


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Awareness programme for school children

CSE conducted a lecture on urban rainwater harvesting on July 23, 2004 at Springdales School, Dhaula Kuan. This school has three rainwater harvesting structures. CSE had provided the designs for the structures. About 200 students from various classes attended the programme that began with the screening of a 90-second spot on rainwater harvesting produced by CSE. Thereafter, the children were explained the importance of water conservation. The students were also briefed about the water crisis situation in Delhi and the importance of rainwater harvesting in solving the crisis. A special screening of the film Water Works India: Four Engineers and a Manager was also organised.

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State level media seminar on rainwater harvesting
A one-day state level media seminar was organised at Thiruvananthapuram on June 22, 2004 by the Government of Kerala to initiate a statewide campaign- cum- programme on rainwater harvesting. Jalanidhi, a World Bank aided project of Govt of Kerala and by the Press Club of Thiruvananthapuram played a key role in organising the seminar. Mediapersons from several parts of Kerala attended the workshop.

Narain, director, CSE inaugurated the seminar. In her keynote address, she stressed the need for water management in a state like Kerala. The CSE director said that the focus should be on reviving the traditional practices like open well and talabs (ponds), which have been the lifeline for Kerala for many centuries. She stressed the importance of having a decentralised water supply system by reviving the open well culture through rainwater harvesting - which is a cost-effective and sustainable solution - rather than depending on the pipe line project which is not sustainable. In her speech, she asked journalists to constantly write about water and water-related issues, rather than writing about it during the peak crisis time.

The seminar was also addressed by many experts like Shree Padre, who spoke about simple water harvesting techniques that he practised in villages of Karnataka and Kerala. Experts from CSE also explained the various techniques of rainwater harvesting practises all over the country.

The seminar concluded with the valedictory function, in which T M Jacob, minister of water resources, Kerala, spoke about efforts made by the government through Jalanidhi. He said that though Kerala has over 40 rivers, the volume of water is only 30 per cent compared to Godavari river. He said that the rivers drain all the rainwater to the sea and this leads to the water crisis. Rainwater harvesting, he said, could help in solving the state's water woes.

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Environmental awareness programme for schoolchildren

CSE participated in the Kerala government's Environmental Awareness Programme in Kerala schools in New Delhi. During the week-long festival experts from CSE delivered lectures in the schools at Canning Road and Vikaspuri, New Delhi. The objective was to introduce various environmental issues to the students and sensitise them to play vital role in mitigation of these problems. The target group included students from classes VIII to X.

Kerala School, Canning Road
On June, 14, 2004 R K Srinivasan of Jal Swaraj Campaign, CSE made an audio visual presentation on water conservation and rainwater harvesting. During his presentation he explained the principles, concepts and techniques of rainwater harvesting. He outlined the water crisis in the country in spite of plentiful rains. He also briefed how people in different regions have managed their water resources through rich traditional water harvesting practises. CSE's model rainwater harvesting projects were discussed in detail.

During the post-lunch session, films on water like Secrets of Thar Desert and Water Works India: Four Engineers and a Manager were screened to expose students to the rich traditions existing in different parts of the country.

On the second day, Ashish Shah of CSE's Environment Education Unit, CSE delivered a lecture on international environmental issues like climate change, global warming, biodiversity, population, poverty, equity and informed the children about how the word environment had different connotations in different parts of the world. He also spoke about various career options available in the field of environment. Later, two films titled The Greenhouse Effect and The Village Republic were screened.

The session ended with a group discussion and an interactive session in which questions raised by the students on problems like sewage disposal and waste management were addressed by experts from CSE.

Kerala School, Vikaspuri
On June, 23, 2004 Salahuddin Saiphy of Jal Swaraj Campaign, CSE, delivered a lecture on rainwater harvesting and water conservation techniques at Kerala School, Vikaspuri New Delhi.

He outlined the water scarcity in India and reasons for the scarcity. Uncontrolled exploitation, rampant usage, polluted water resources were discussed citing various examples. Saiphy said that management of water resources should be vested in the people and explained the traditional rainwater harvesting techniques that existed in India right from the days of Indus valley civilisation. Concepts, principles and techniques of rainwater harvesting were elaborated in detail.

Students were explained the formulae to calculate the rainwater harvesting potential for any building. The students were excited as they calculated the rainwater harvesting potential for their school and house.

During the second session, the 90-second public service spot on rainwater harvesting was screened. Later, the films Harvest of rainand Water works India: Four Engineers and a Manager were screened. Objective of screening the films was to expose the students to different traditional water harvesting system and explain how the people have managed their water resources in water stressed regions.

The second day was devoted to global perspective on environment such as national, regional and individual perspective on environment and careers in environment. Ashish Shah from CSE's Environment Education Unit spoke at length about international environmental issues like climate change, global warming, biodiversity, population, poverty and equity and informed the children about how the word environment had different connotations in different parts of the world.

Films on environmental issues like The Greenhouse Effect and The Village Republic were also screened during the event.

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Awareness programme on rainwater harvesting for residents of South City, Gurgaon

On June 16, 2004, CSE officials made an audio-visual presentation on rainwater harvesting at Unitech Country Club, South City, Gurgaon. The participants included the residents of South City, Sushant Lok, Palam Vihar, Gurgaon Sector 14, Palam Apartments and South City Heights among others. The meeting was organised in collaboration with Rotatry Club of South City Gurgaon to sensitise the residents about the problems they would have to encounter as a consequence of depleting ground water levels and to recongnise the fact that there is an urgent need to initiate rainwater harvesting projects in each colony at community level.

During his presentation, Salahuddin Saiphy of CSE’s Jal Swaraj Campaign outlined the water stress in the area and the national perspective. He briefed the concept, principles and different techniques of rainwater harvesting. He also unveiled the results of monitoring of CSE’s model rainwater harvesting projects and stressed that the community efforts definitely pay off in the long term as a result of rise in water levels in the area. He quoted the case study of Panchshila Park colony, which stands out as an ideal model for the group houses for rainwater harvesting in Delhi. He stressed the need for community-based rainwater harvesting that costs less to implement than individual RWH initiatives and benefits the entire community in a given area. The interactive session at the end of the meeting was gripping, and several queries raised by audiences were addressed. Most of residents desired the financial assistance from the government to implement rainwater harvesting on large scale but many of them shown keen interest to adopt it at individual level, in absence of any support.

Network Meeting – II, maintenance and monitoring of rainwater harvesting structures

Centre for Science and Environment organised a Networking Meeting of rainwater harvesters on June 15, 2004 at India Habitat Centre. The objective of the workshop was to tell the practitioners how to maintain the rainwater harvesting (RWH) structures, effectively and inexpensively. CSE also unveiled the results of monitoring in the model RWH projects.

Workshop for Students and Teachers at Jamshedpur
Dasgupta, Coordinator of Jal Swaraj Campaign

The participants included the hosts of CSE's model rainwater harvesting projects and citizens who have implemented RWH under the technical guidance of CSE or other agencies. Besides this, a large number of interested people attended the meeting. Representatives from some of the concerned government departments like Delhi Jal Board (DJB), Central Public Works Department (CPWD), New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) and Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) were also present in the event.

In the beginning, Sumita Dasgupta, Coordinator of Jal Swaraj Campaign, flagged some of the key issues and concerns related to water in Delhi. Alarming decline in water levels, deteriorating water quality, waste water treatment, water tariff and need for focused government policies were some of issues that were discussed.

Workshop for Students and Teachers at Jamshedpur
Sandeep Dixit
Later CSE's technical expert, RK Srinivasan, released the results of water level monitoring in the CSE rainwater model projects, monitored during the past two years. The result showing the rise of 2-10 meters in water level after implementing rainwater harvesting in projects like Jamia Hamdard University, Janki Devi College and Shri Ram school established that rainwater harvesting
has the potential to check the decline of ground water and stablise it.

Later Salahuddin Saiphy, made an audio-visual presentation on how to carry out maintenance of water harvesting structures. He gave a detailed lecture on how to maintain the structure effectively and inexpensively. Responding to a query regarding the cost involved in maintenance, Saiphy gave the example of Panchsheel Park and said that that cost of annual maintenance is barely around Rs 500 per recharge well.

Workshop for Students and Teachers at Jamshedpur
Sunita Narain,
Director, CSE
An exciting and interactive session of exchanging ideas, experiences and opinions followed. It and was led by CSE's director Sunita Narain. Sumita Dasgupta, coordinator, Natural Resource Management, CSE concluded the meeting and followings are the outcomes of the meeting:

* Too many conditions are attached to the incentives given by Delhi Jal Board under Bhagidari Scheme.
* There is a need for a transparent and accessible system
* A maximum of Rs 50,000 given by DJB is an insignificant amount
* Need more focus on NCR
* Decentralisation of the process of certification
*Maintenance must be funded by Delhi government

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Lecture for Army engineers

CSE experts conducted a lecture on urban rainwater harvesting on June 8, 2004 at National Institute of Defence Estates Management (NIDEM), Delhi
Cantonment. The participants were Junior and Assistant Engineers from various
cities representing central, western and southern commands. These engineers were mainly in charge of water supply and maintenance in their respective cantonments. The main objective of this lecture was to generate awareness on rainwater harvesting.

In the two-hour lecture, experts from CSE spoke about the urban water scenario in major cities in the country. He also briefed the participants about the various rainwater harvesting techniques that can be applied in cantonment areas to improve the water situation. Through various CSE’s model project case studies from Delhi, the participants were explained how rainwater harvesting could help in improving the water table and water quality.

R K Das, director, NIDEM requested CSE’s assistance in training plumbers and
masons all over the country so that they can implement water harvesting in their cantonment areas.

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Training programme for engineers of SRF Group of Industries, Kashipur

On June 8, 2004 on the request of SRF Group of Industries, New Delhi, CSE
conducted a day-long training programme on rainwater harvesting for the
employees of SRF Polymers Ltd at Kashipur, Uttaranchal. The participants
included engineers, assistant engineers, supervisors and persons responsible
for water supply and management in the plant.

The training programme was divided into two sessions - theoretical and
practical. An audiovisual presentation explained the water crisis all over the country and linked it to reluctance towards adopting traditional water harvesting techniques. The participants were stunned to hear about the situation in Uttaranchal and district Udham Singh Nagar (Kahsipur). They were also appraised of the water scenario in some other cities like Chennai, Bangalore and Aizwal. A public service advertisement on rainwater harvesting was also screened on the occasion. The concepts and principles of rainwater harvesting, planning and designing of rainwater harvesting structures were explained in detail.

Boond Boond Se Ghat Bhare, the Hindi version of Harvest of Rain was screened. In the practical session, the participants were divided into two groups. The groups were asked to design rainwater harvesting systems for the administrative block and the factory guest house. The excited participants braved heavy rains to make field observations. Later, both the group presented their designs. The flaws in the designs were rectified during the discussion.

The authorities decided to take up rainwater harvesting system in both building
as a model project and resolved to complete the project before monsoon. Participants also promised to actively participate in water conservation drive not only in the plant but at their community. The authorities also promised to start a water audit in the plant to cut down their water requirements from 300 kl per day to 250 kl during the first month.

The training programme was beneficial for SRF Polymers Ltd as its new plant is coming up in Indore, a high water-scarcity area. Rainwater harvesting has been made mandatory in Indore. Some of the trainees from the Kashipur unit will be transferred to Indore shortly. These trainees will not only implement rainwater harvesting system there but will also be able to maintain and monitor the structures efficiently.

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Workshop for schoolchildren

A day-long workshop for Class XI students was held on June 1, 2004 in collaboration with the ministry of environment and forest at CSE's conference hall. About 25 students from various public and government schools from various parts of Delhi participated in the workshop. The students discussed the water situation in their respective areas. The programme lasted for six hours and included lectures, practical work, film show and painting competition. The best performers were awarded prizes.

The programme was held to sensitise students about water-related issues,
understand the water scenario of Delhi, understand the importance of rainwater harvesting and to encourage them to incorporate water conservation measures in their day to day activities.

a) Ice breaking session
In this session, Sumita Dasgupta interacted with the students to find out their level of understanding of water. The students expressed their expectations and eagerness to learn from the workshop.

b) Setting ground rules
In this session the students were briefed about the various activities in the workshop. They were asked to be attentive as it would help them score well in the sessions to follow. They were also informed that the best performers would be awarded prizes.

c) Pre-assessment form
This questionnaire was circulated in the beginning of the workshop. It carried basic questions about water and its related issues. This questionnaire included nine objective and one subjective type questions. It aimed at testing the knowledge of schoolchildren beyond their books. The exercise helped the organisers to categorise the students. The analysis done based on the study of this questionnaire is given below.

Category No. of students Percentage
Abv 75% marks 4 16%
50-75% marks 12 48%
Below 50% marks 9 36%
The study shows that 36 per cent of students are below 50 per cent category.

d) Session-I (Basics of water)
In this session the students were briefed about water, its origin, source, distribution pattern, its mismanagement and its management. At the end of the session, a questionnaire containing 16 objective questions was circulated and students were given 10 minutes to answer. The summarised results for all the sessions are given in the end of this write up.

e) Session - II (Know your Delhi)
The students were informed about Delhi, its water sources, rainfall pattern, water distribution pattern, demand and supply and Delhi's falling water level. At the end of the session, the students were tested for their understanding.

f) Session - III (Principles of rainwater harvesting)
Participants were briefed about methods of rainwater harvesting and how it is practised in various parts of our country.

g) Session - IV (Practical session)
Students were given the site plan of CSE building and were asked to identify the water harvesting structures. The students went around the building, observed the structures and marked them on the site plan.


h) Session - V (Rainwater harvesting at school and home)
Through a series of line drawings, the students were explained in detail how rainwater harvesting can be done in their schools and homes. They were also briefed about rainwater harvesting projects in Sri Ram School, Mira Model School and Mother's International School.

i) Session - VI (Feature film on water harvesting)
In this session students were shown the film Secrets of Thar desert. The aim was to explain how people in Rajasthan manage their water in spite of little rainfall.

j) Session - VII (Drawing competition)
Students were asked to draw on topics like water crisis, water conservation, water pollution and water and you. They were provided with drawing sheets and sketch pens. A design expert from Down To Earth's design team judged the winners who were awarded CDs on water.

j) Post-assessment form
The students were asked to answer the same questions which were given to them before the exercise began to assess the impact and learning.

Category No. of students Percentage
Abv 75% marks 6 24%
50-75% marks 18 72%
Below 50% marks 0%
The comparative study of the pre and post assessment forms clearly shows that there has been clear improvement. In the pre assessment test, 36 per cent of students scored below 50 per cent. But there is a major improvement in the performance of the students, which is indicated by fact that the nine students who were scoring below 50 per cent have improved and moved to the higher category. As much as 44 per cent students were found to have moved to average category from below 50 per cent category and 22 per cent had moved to good category.

The details of marks obtained by each student by the end of the workshop in all the sessions is given below.

Name of student Marks scored
1 Meet Sachdeva 68.66%
2 Amit Pandita 67.32%
3 Agrata Sharma 66.66%
4 Preeti Sejwal 66.00%
5 Prabhat Sharma 64.66%
6 Himani Rana 64.00%
7 Surbhi 63.32%
8 Poornima Saraswat 58.66%
9 Indu Singh 58.66%
10 Jasmeet Singh 58.00%
11 Ajesh Sajwan 57.32%
12 Tavish Mittal 57.32%
13 Rajneesh Prakash Verma 55.32%
14 Priyanka Bansal 54.66%
15 Shankar Sharma 54.66%
16 Banpreet Singh 53.32%
17 Bhupinder Phalswal 53.32%
18 vikram Bhuttan 52.66%
19 Komal Preet Singh 52.00%
20 Vipin Sharma 52.00%
21 Prashant Gogia 52.00%
22 Sidhharth Chawla 50.00%
23 Saurabh Singh 48.66%
24 Ashish Joshi 42.00%
25 Bhola Ram 35.32%
Below are the performances of two students both of them have shown a gradual rise in their marks throughout the exercise.

Below are the performances of two students both of them have shown a gradual rise in their marks throughout the exercise.

The graph below shows the performance of a students who has gradually improved from bad category to average and then to good at the end of the exercise

Comments from the feedback form
All of them have rate the training material, resource persons, presentation, arrangements, venue and food as good. Most of them have found the theoretical sessions as educative, knowledge giving, interesting.

Similar things were said about the practical session also but few found it as lengthy also.

Regarding the useful part of the session the harvesting and water conservation part was liked the most and almost 100 per cent wanted to implement rainwater harvesting in their daily lives.

In the suggestions everyone has given interesting and nice comments whereas some did not like the drawing competition and questionnaire portions.


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Awareness programme on rainwater harvesting at Jamshedpur

CSE in collaboration with Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO) organised workshops, seminars and awareness programmes on rainwater harvesting in rural areas as well as rural and urban areas of Jamshedpur to spread the concept of rainwater harvesting between April 5-10, 2004.

Since the Jamshedpur possess a poor ground water potential the city mainly depends on Subarnarekha, which is more or less an open sewage drain. According to R P Sharma, Chief, Environment & Occupational Health, the river cannot be a dependable source since its pollution level is increasing day by day. The another water source is Chandela lake but Tata has to pay Rs 7 crore for fetching water from this water body and this amount may increase in future, so rainwater harvesting will be viable option in Jamshedpur, since the city gets double the rain what Delhi gets.

The first awareness workshop was conducted on April 8, 2004 for villagers in Lupungdih, Lohavasa, East Singbhum where CSE experts informed the villagers about the grim situation of water throughout the country followed by the local problems such as the drying up of wells, tubewells, pond, lakes and even river in summers. He insisted that rainwater harvesting structures can be constructed in rural areas as well as in urban areas. He spoke about the importance of community managing the water resource with case study from Rajasthan and Maharashtra. Responding to a query on why most ponds do not retain water till summer, he explained that the site selection and regional topography is the main culprit.

During the discussion, Madan Mahto, a farmer, explained how he grew vegetables during the dry season: he has constructed a few bund in the nullah near his field. This not only left some water upstream but also allowed moisture downstream as a result of seepage.

CSE experts also answered queries from villagers during the discussion.

Workshop for students and teachers at Jamshedpur
A workshop for school teachers and students from various school under TISCO was conducted on April 9, 2004 at KMPM Inter college, Jamshedpur. Screening of a 90 second public services advertisement on rainwater harvesting at the onset was widely appreciated by the participants.

Workshop for Students and Teachers at Jamshedpur
Teachers and students attending the workshop
During the workshop, the teachers and students were informed about the water crisis in various parts of the country in general and Jamshedpur in particular. The role of rainwater harvesting in solving the crisis was also discussed. Concepts and principles of rainwater harvesting was explained and the principles of traditional rainwater harvesting techniques were also discussed. Experts also detailed the principles of designing rainwater harvesting structures. They were informed about various water harvesting technologies and different kind of structures. Experiences with CSE's model rainwater harvesting projects were also shared with the participants. The session concluded with the screening of the film, The Secrets of Thar Desert.

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Interactive workshop on water conservation at National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee

On April 13-14, 2004, National Institute of Hydrology (NIH) organised a two day Interactive workshop on Water Conservation at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. Around 50 participants from 15 NGOs and different government departments attended the workshop. About 15 presentations on different issues pertaining to water conservation; rainwater harvesting and watershed management spread over six sessions were organised. K D Sharma, director, NIH outlined the water scarcity all over country in spite of good monsoon and disparities in water quantity and quality. He also outlined the role of NGOs, government and the common man in the struggle against the water problems in present context. V C Goyal, organising secretary, told that the water crisis is taking the shape of mini civil war. He urged on the need of water movement that make use of the traditional knowledge and scientific approach.

Interactive workshop at Roorkee
Inaugural Session of the "Interactive workshop on water conservation"
Delivering the inaugural address, Amar Singh Faroda, agricultural scientist, said that there are two ways to conserve water. The first is to conserve at resource level and second at utilisation level. He said that both Jaisalmer in Rajasthan, which is gets about 100 mm of rainfall and Cherapunji in Meghalaya, which gets around 11,000 mm of rainfall, have water problems. Jaismand lake in Udaipur has dried up for the first time in 300 years, he informed. Faroda said that earlier, people of Jaisalmer and Barmer used a coat during bath and collected the used water in a pot and used it later for washing. Sushma Singh, additional secretary, ministry of water resources, said that although water is a renewable resource, its availability is finite and should not be taken for granted.

M Mehta from Central Ground Water Authority said that at present, 310 blocks in 40 districts of 16 states were over-exploiting water resources. This has led to a drop of more than four metres in the ground water levels.

A member of CSE's Jal Swaraj Campaign made a presentation on urban water crisis and related issues like water availability, distribution, pricing, sewage treatment and deteriorating quality. Concepts, principles and different techniques of rainwater harvesting were explained and CSE's model rainwater harvesting projects were also introduced. A public service advertisement on rainwater harvesting was screened on the occasion.

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Sarbbat Vikas Utsav, Amritsar

Kheti Virasat, a Patiala-based NGO, organised a Sarbbat Vikas Utsav between March 15 and 19, 2004 at Guru Nanak Dev University (GNDU) in Amritsar, Punjab. This unique initiative highlighted the ecological challenges facing Punjab and provided a platform for discussing alternative models of eco-sustainable agriculture, rural development and appropriate rural technology.

The meeting included a seminar on 'People's Movement for Water Conservation', at which CSE made a presentation on the precarious status of groundwater in Punjab. The prolonged drawing of ground water for water-intensive crops like rice and sugarcane and lack of water conservation facilities has severely affected the groundwater balance in the state.

Participants included villagers from different parts of Punjab, NGO representatives, students and distinguished experts. Rainwater harvesting techniques such as storage and groundwater recharge, implementation strategies and precautions were discussed in detail. CSE's presentation also highlighted water scarcity in other parts of India and familiarised participants with India's age-old traditions of water management in different eco regions. CSE also set up an exhibition on rainwater harvesting, which included posters on techniques, implementation strategies and precautions.

Meeting with UN Habitat Millennium Task Force

Sumita Dasgupta, coordinator, Jal Swaraj Campaign, CSE addressing the UN Millennium Task Force members
CSE organised a meeting with the UN Habitat Millennium Task Force at the India Habitat Centre, New Delhi on March 2, 2004. The meeting provided a base to use CSE's urban water harvesting campaign for policy intervention on water and sanitation. During the meeting, Sumita Dasgupta, coordinator, Natural Resources Management unit of CSE, made a presentation on urban water crisis and related issues like water availability, distribution, pricing, sewage treatment and deteriorating quality. CSE's model rainwater harvesting projects were also introduced. The discussion was followed by a site visit to Shri Ram School and Panchsheel Park colony, both of which have implemented rainwater harvesting with CSE's assistance.
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Pustak and Shilpa Mela exhibition, Unnao

On the occasion of Unnao Pustak and Shilpa Mela, organised by Visvambhar Dayalu Tripathi Rajkiya Jila Pustakalya between March 20 and 25, CSE displayed posters on rainwater harvesting. CSE's model rainwater harvesting projects were also displayed.

Workshop on Estate Management and Maintenance

From February 23 to 28, Amity International School of Urban Management (AISUM), New Delhi organised its second short term certificate course on "Estate Management and Maintenance". The workshop was attended by engineers, estate managers, administrative officers, managers and representatives of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia University, cooperative housing societies like East End Apartments Cooperative Housing Society and government bodies like Delhi Development Authority (DDA), Public Works Department of Delhi.

(PWD) and Delhi Agricultural Marketing Board (DAMB). Addressing the participants, S P Jakhanwal, Director, AISUM, outlined the urgency of rainwater harvesting and water management in every building. CSE's presentation focused on the maintenance of rainwater harvesting structures.

Public awareness meeting at Defence Colony, New Delhi

Due to a burgeoning demand and over-extraction, the water level in Defence Colony has fallen sharply and the quality of water has deteriorated significantly. The Resident Welfare Association of Defence Colony has now taken to rainwater harvesting seriously and organised series of talks on the topic. In a presentation, CSE illustrated the case study of Panchsheel Park colony, which stands out as an ideal model for a residential colony in Delhi.

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Training workshop for BSNL engineers in New Delhi

A one-day workshop was organised at CSE's office on February 5, 2004 for Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) Engineers from various parts of country, including Mumbai, Delhi, Ghaziabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Chandigarh, and Chhattisgarh. The participants were involved in construction activities of BSNL office and residential buildings in their respective states. The main objective of the meeting was to strategies on implementing RWH structures in keeping with recent legislations in various states and to solve the water problem on BSNL premises.

Participants during theoretical session

IIn his presentation, Eklavya Prasad, deputy coordinator of CSE's Jal Swaraj Campaign, outlined the prevailing water crisis in various parts of the country, and explained how traditionally our ancestors solved the water problem. He also outlined the Jal Swaraj campaign's outreach activities, including publications, newsletters, training programs and through its website.

R K Srinivasan, Networking Associate of the Jal Swaraj Campaign, underscored the water crisis in urban areas such as Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Indore and Kanpur. He also highlighted legislations made by state governments and municipalities that have made rainwater harvesting mandatory. Srinivasan also outlined CSE's model projects and their impact on groundwater recharge and in disseminating awareness.

Salahuddin Saiphy, Research Associate with the Jal Swaraj Campaign, spoke about various rainwater harvesting techniques and methods of constructing rainwater harvesting structures.

Participants were also taken to Jamia Hamdard University campus which one of the sites for CSE's model project. The participants studied the water harvesting scheme in the university and also interacted with university engineers. Following their visit, participants were given a practical assignment, where they were asked to prepare a water harvesting scheme for a police station in Meerut. Participants were provided basic information, such as a site map, and physiograhy and hydrogeological details. They were then required to prepare a cost-effective water havesting project for the site, and present their project designs.

At the concluding session, Sumita Dasgupta, coordinator of the Jal Swaraj Campaign, exhorted BSNL engineers to not only implement RWH in their project sites, but in their respective houses as well. All participants were awarded certificates for attending the workshop.

Workshop in Mumbai

After setting in motion the urban rainwater campaign in Mumbai by launching the region-specific edition of CSE's popular Water Harvesting Manual in Marathi and English languages, CSE participated in a workshop for professionals that was organised by Asian Paints in Mumbai on February 17, 2004. Mumbai Municipal Corporation Commmissioner, Karun Srivastava, inaugrated the workshop and stressed the need for water conservation in Mumbai. Sumita Dasgupta, Coordinator of the Jal Swaraj Campaign provided a broader picture of the water situation in Maharastra and in Mumbai. Several RWH practitioners, including Rajender Singh of Tarun Bharat Sangh and K R Gopinath of KRG Rainwater Harvesting Foundation, Chennai attended the Mumbai workshop.

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Water conservation and rainwater harvesting in Kolkata

A one-day workshop on water conservation and rainwater harvesting was organised by the West Bengal Pollution Control Board (WBPC) on January 16, 2004 in Kolkata. In his welcome address, Dr S K Sarkar, Member Secretary, WBPC, said that water harvesting was a traditional practice in India and should be revived. Sukumar Das, Principal Secretary, State Water Investigation Department, said that not all the blocks in West Bengal are water bearing. Of the 321 blocks, only 269 blocks have water potential; the water potential in the remaining blocks was less due to the presence of laterite, crystalline terrain and salinity, which severely limits the sources for future extraction of water. To illustrate, he claimed the water level has fallen from 14m below ground level (bgl) in 1991 to 18m bgl in 2001 in the Park Circus area. He said the water requirement in 2000 which was around 10.85 million hectare meter (mhm) is projected to rise to 20 million hectare meter by 2050. The domestic and drinking water requirements will rise from 0.26 mhm to 0.40 mhm by 2050, making the future of water supply uncertain.

B K Basu, Chief Engineer, WBPCB, said that considering the unplanned urbanization in future, WBPCB has issued a " Direction" date 19th December, 2003. According to this Direction, Municipal Corporations, Municipalities, Zilla Parishads, Panchayat Samities and Panchayats will be discouraged from sanctioning any building plan of a housing complex having 100 flats or more, or those with a super built up area of 60,000 sq.ft or more, without the prior environmental clearance, i.e., 'Consent to Establish' issued by the State Board. Subhas Dutta, CGWB Scientist (Eastern Region), talked about the hydro-geology of West Bengal and Kolkata. He said that along with water, sand is also being pumped out. This is due to the unscientific construction of tubewells. If unchecked, such sand pumping may lead to land subsidence also. He said that CGWB monitors the water level four times a year, and the post-monsoon water level is showing a steady decline. From 1987 to 2002, the post-monsoon water level has declined in the Salt Lake City region. He further said that in Kolkata, the freshwater aquifer is sandwiched between saline and brackish water-bearing aquifers. So excess pumping of fresh water will lead to brackish water contaminating the fresh water aquifers. He said that in South Kolkata, the freshwater aquifer now extends to between 50 to 100m bgl. Here the freshwater is floating above the saline water, so excess pumping may lead to the up coning of saline water.

He also warned that the natural recharge from rainwater is not possible in Kolkata due to the presence of an impermeable clay layer above the permeable sand formation. He said that in North Kolkata, freshwater exists from 40m to 100 m below ground level (bgl), while in Central and South Kolkata, the level is between 20 to 150m. He says the water level has dipped from 5 to 9m bgl in Central Kolkata in 2003. A member of CSE's Jal Swaraj Campaign outlined existing legislations in various cities in India. He mentioned how the latest ordinance in Chennai and its followup activities had led to the successful implementation of RWH in individual houses. He also quoted the case of Delhi where CGWA has come up with several implementation deadlines.

Participants were also taken to two sites in Kolkata, Poura Bhawan in the Bidhanagar Municipality office complex, and Bidhannagar Government College, where they were shown rainwater harvesting structures. In these two buildings rainwater is stored in a ferro-cement tank of 12,000 liters and the cost of the each tank is approximately Rs. 22,000.

The site visits were followed by a technical session, in which Dr T S Bandopadhyay, Director, IWMED, spoke about rainwater harvesting techniques.

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Exhibitions organised by CSE in New Delhi

As a part of its Jal Swaraj Campaign, CSE organised two exhibitions at Maurya Sherton and at the Indian International Centre (IIC). The two-day exhibition at Maurya Sherton was held from Febraury 7-8, 2004. The IIC exhibition was a part of water festival organised by IIC from February 17 to 22, 2004. CSE participated in both these events by displaying posters on urban RWH strategies and issues. The poster series also outlined various methods and techniques of urban rainwater harvesting. The posters also showcased CSE's model projects. A model showing the water harvesting system installed in the CSE building attracted the general public who visited the stall. CSE's influential publications on water management and RWH were also displayed at the stall.
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Book release and workshop on rural water harvesting in Indore

The Hindi edition of the Urban Water Harvesting Manual published by the Centre for Science and Environment was released by Tarun Bharat Sangh's Rajendra Singh on February 17, 2004 at a workshop jointly organised by India Soya Foundation and Rotary Club of Indore city.

The workshop was organised to educate people regarding the alarming water situation in the region and to motivate them to adopt region-specific water harvesting techniques and effective water management strategies to overcome the crisis.In the welcome address O P Goyal, of India Soya Foudation spoke about the growing water crisis in Malwa reagion of Madhya Pradesh and the urgent need to restore the deteriorating situation. In the inaugural address CSE staffer spoke on the current water (mis)management practices and the increasing levels of dependence on government. The presentation also highlighted the potential of traditional water management techniques and its relevance in today's water stress situation.

Rajender Singh in his speech insisted on mobilising people creating awareness in the rural areas to conserve rainwater in order to save the region from becoming a dry zone.

In the workshop Laxman Singh from Jaipur, GT Bhimte from Indore, Vijay Kedia from Aurangabad and CSE staffer shared various local and cost effective rural rainwater harvesting techniques with the participants.

The workshop was attended by farmers, village pradhans, government officials, local citizens and students.


Lecture on RWH for ECO CLUB schools in New Delhi

CSE delivered a lecture on RWH in a programme organised by The Shri Ram School, Vasant Vihar, New Delhi, (an Eco Club lead school identified by Government of Delhi) on February 17, 2004. The target group included teachers and students from 20 government schools of Delhi.

CSE's lecture focused primarily on water management and rainwater harvesting. The talk outlined the water scarcity in India and reasons of scarcity amidst plentiful rains. Uncontrolled exploitation, rampant usage, polluted water resources are not new in most of the urban areas. Concepts and principles of RWH was explained by narrating the rich traditions of rainwater harvesting that existed in India right from the Indus valley civilization. Starkling experiences
from CSE's Model RWH were also shared during the occasion.

Apart from CSE staffer Manoj Dabbas from (ATTREE) , Vimlendu Jha (We For Yamuna) spoke about the environmental aspects that teachers must be conveying to their students while interacting with students.

Anil Kumar from Centre for Environment Education also spoke about the magnitude of waste water generated in an urban environment and need to manage it.
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