Talab / Bandhis
Talabs a
re reservoirs. They may be natural, such as the ponds (pokhariyan) at Tikamgarh in the Bundelkhand region. They can also be human-made, such the lakes in Udaipur. A reservoir area of less than five bighas is called a talai; a medium sized lake is called a bandhi or talab; bigger lakes are called sagar or samand.

The pokhariyan serve irrigation and drinking purposes. When the water in these reserviors dries up just a few days after the monsoon, the pond beds are cultivated with rice.

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Saza Kuva
An open well with multiple owners (saza = partner), saza kuva is the most important source of irrigation in the Aravalli hills in Mewar, eastern Rajasthan. The soil dug out to make the well pit is used to construct a huge circular foundation or an elevated platform sloping away from the well. The first is built to accomodate the rehat, a traditional water lifting device; the sloping platform is for the chada, in which buffaloes are used to lift water. Saza kuva construction is generally taken up by a group of farmers with adjacent landholdings; a harva, a man with special skills in groundwater detection, helps fix the site.
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are small earthen check dams that capture and conserve rainwater, improving percolation and groundwater recharge. Starting 1984, the last sixteen years have seen the revival of some 3000 johads spread across more than 650 villages in Alwar district, Rajasthan. This has resulted in a general rise of the groundwater level by almost 6 metres and a 33 percent increase in the forest cover in the area. Five rivers that used to go dry immediately following the monsoon have now become perennial, such as the River Arvari, has come alive.
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Naada / Bandha
Naada/bandha are found in the Mewar region of the Thar desert. It is a stone check dam, constructed across a stream or gully, to capture monsoon runoff on a stretch of land. Submerged in water, the land becomes fertile as silt deposits on it and the soil retains substantial amounts of water.
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Bhitada village , Jhabua district of Madhya pradesh developed the unique pat system. This system was devised according to the peculiarities of the terrain to divert water from swift-flowing hill streams into irrigation channels called pats.

The diversion bunds across the stream are made by piling up stones and then lining them with teak leaves and mud to make them leakproof. The pat channel has to negotiate small nullahs that join the stream off and on, and also sheer cliffs before reaching the fields. These sections invariably get washed away during the monsoons. Stone aqueducts have to be built to span the intervening nullahs.

The villagers irrigate their fields by turns. The channel requires constant maintenance and it is the duty of the family irrigating the fields on a particular day to take care of the pat on that particular day. It takes about two weeks to get the pat flowing and the winter crop is sown in early November.
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A rapat is a percolation tank, with a bund to impound rainwater flowing through a watershed and a waste weir to dispose of the surplus flow. If the height of the structure is small, the bund may be built of masonary, otherwise earth is used. Rajasthan rapats, being small, are all masonry structures. Rapats and percolation tanks do not directly irrigate land, but recharges well within a distance of 3-5 km downstream. Silting is a serious problem with small rapats and the estimated life of a rapat varies from 5 to 20 years.
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Chandela Tank
These tanks were constructed by stopping the flow of water in rivulets flowing between hills by erecting massive earthen embankments, having width of 60m or more. These hills with long stretches of quartz reefs running underneath them, acted as natural ground water barrier helping to trap water between the ridges. The earthen embankments were supported on both sides with walls of coarse stones, forming a series of stone steps. These tanks are made up of lime and mortar and this is the reason why these tanks survived even after thousand years but the only problem, which these tanks are facing, is siltation of tank beds. Chandela tanks usually had a convex curvature somewhere in the middle of the embankment; many older and smaller tanks were constructed near the human settlement or near the slopes of a cluster of hills. These tanks served to satisfy the drinking water needs of villagers and cattle.
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Bundela Tank
These tanks are bigger in size as compared to Chandela tanks. These tanks had solidly constructed steps leading to water in the tank; But these structures had chabootaras, pavillions and royal orchards designed to show off the glory of the king who built them. But these tanks are not as cost effective and simple as Chandela tanks. These tanks were constructed to meet the growing water demands in the area, maintenance of these tanks was done by the person employed by the king but in case of smaller tanks villagers collectively removed silt and repair embankment.
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